Posts tagged ‘Blooms’

Blooms Taxonomy

imageCreating valid and reliable assessments requires us to distinguish the differences between knowledge, comprehension, and higher levels of thinking.  We need to measure what we want to measure! 

image The Bloom’s Taxonomy is a first class example of how we can think through these distinctions. For a detailed understanding of Bloom’s Taxonomy I’d recommend the book, “A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching, and Assessing,” by Lorin W. Anderson, David R. Krathwohl, Peter W. Airasian, and Kathleen A. Cruikshank.  With this article I’d like to provide you with a general set of distinctions of the 6 levels and maybe motivate you to learn more.

Knowledge (memory recall)

At the knowledge level we would expect people to remember things such as facts, words, colors, terminology, sequences, methods, etc. Knowledge checks memory recall and nothing more. 

Key words used within a question stem at this level might be: define, describe, identify, label, list, match, name, outline, recall, reproduce, select, state.

In this article I’ll use examples related to driving as this is readily understood by people from diverse cultures. A driving test question at this level could be:

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 image What color traffic light requires you to stop”?

    • Yellow
    • Orange
    • Red
    • Green

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Comprehension (understanding)

At the comprehension level we would expect people to understand the facts rather than just know them and have the ability to translate abstract ideas into concrete terms.

Words used within a question stem at this level might be: compare, convert, describe, defend, distinguish, estimate, explain, extrapolate, infer, interpret, organize, paraphrase, rewrite, state main idea, summarize, translate.

A driving test question a this level could be:

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image image image image

Please check all that apply to stop signs and a traffic lights?

    • You must always stop at a stop sign
    • You must always stop at a traffic light
    • Traffic lights change color
    • Traffic lights have three colored lights
    • Stop signs change color

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Application

At the Application level we would expect people to solve problems in new situations by applying knowledge, facts, techniques and rules in different ways.

Words used within a question stem at this level might be: apply, change, compute, construct, demonstrate, discover, execute, manipulate, modify, operate, prepare, produce, relate, show, solve, and use.

High fidelity environments and observations might be used to accumulate evidence at this level but a driving test question could be:

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You are driving at 25 miles/hour (50 Km /hour) with a traffic light changes from green to yellow/orange when you are 7 feet (2 meters) away.  In this situation what would you do: 

    • Brake hard and ensure you stop before the light
    • Continue through the light if it safe to do so
    • Accelerate to avoid crossing a red light
    • Refer to the rules of the road manual

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Analysis

At the Analysis level we would expect people to examine the facts, break information into parts by identifying motives or causes, compare and contrast, distinguish between fact and inference, and make inferences and find evidence to support theories.

Words used within a question stem at this level might be: analyze, break down, compare, contrast, diagram, deconstruct, differentiate, distinguish, identifies, investigate, infer, and solve.

At this level we could think of a policeman visiting the site of an accident, seeking and collecting evidence, analyzing possibilities, and organizing evidence to support various theories.  High fidelity environments and observations might be used to accumulate evidence at this level but a test question could be:

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image As a policeman you have been called to the scene of an accident. Please look at the pictures and read the transcripts of the interviews to help you understand and analyze the scene.

Please write your report to record the evidence and your analysis. image .

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Synthesis

At the Synthesis level we would expect people to compile information together in a different way by combining diverse elements in new patterns and/or proposing alternative solutions.

Words used within a question stem at this level might be: categorize, combine, compile, compose, create, develop, devise, design, explain, formulate, generate, modify, organize, plan, rearrange, reconstruct, reorganize, revise, rewrite, summarize

At this level we could think of a lawyer developing his arguments in a case to defend his client.  At this level information should be abundant and a test question could be:

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image Please reference the attached police reports and witness depositions and develop a case to defend your client against a charge of go through a red light at speed.

 

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Evaluation

At the Evaluation level we would expect people to present and defend opinions by making judgments about information, validity of ideas or quality of work based on a set of criteria/rules.

Words used within a question stem at this level might be:  appraise, conclude, criticize, critique, defend, evaluate, interpret, justify, measure, summarize, support, and test.

At this level we could think of a judge who has considered the evidence and listened to the lawyers’ arguments, and again information is abundant. At this level a test question could be:

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Please reference the attached police reports, witness depositions and arguments presented by either side and judge the defendant to be guilty or not guilty and explain how you reached your conclusions.

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Conclusions

Understanding the distinctions presented by the Blooms Taxonomy we are able to more accurately assess the knowledge, skills and abilities required to yield performance.

With the use of appropriate scenario style questions, potentially supplemented  with documents, pictures, sounds, and videos, it is possible to test at the higher levels of Blooms.

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May 18, 2009 at 1:54 pm 1 comment

A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching, and Assessing: A Revision of Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives

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A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching, and Assessing: A Revision of Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives

by Lorin W. Anderson (Author), David R. Krathwohl (Author), Peter W. Airasian (Author), Kathleen A. Cruikshank (Author), Richard E. Mayer (Author), Paul R. Pintrich (Author), James Raths (Author), Merlin C. Wittrock (Author)

Here is the link to A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching, and Assessing. I don’t yield any money from this I just like to share the knowledge.

May 18, 2009 at 12:15 pm Leave a comment


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